Essay

Please prepare all three essays. Compare your answers with classmates. I will choose one of these to place on the test and you will have to write it fresh for 30 points.

1: Discuss how the concept of horizontal gene transfer relates to bacteria. Include the following in your discussion:

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bacterial mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer and how they differ from normal inheritance

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the importance of horizontal gene transfer to the treatment of bacterial infections

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the effects this concept has on evolutionary relationships inside and outside the bacterial domain

2: Explain why the kingdom Protista is no longer a valid kingdom. Include the following as evidence:

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the concept of monophyletic vs. para or polyphyletic

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the evidence that neither protista nor the old subgroups “algae” and “protozoa” are monophyletic

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your personal suggestion for how the major protist groups could be rearranged to create monophyletic kingdoms (remember to include the higher eukaryotes in your analysis)

3: Compare and contrast reproduction in nonvascular, seedless vascular, and seeded plants. Include the following in your answer:

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the concept of alternation of generations and how this differs from human reproduction

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a description of this alternation in moss, including the concepts of sporophyte/gametophyte, diploid/haploid, spore/gamete, and dominant/dependent

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the key differences between your description in moss and the same processes in seedless vascular and seeded plants