Discussion: Evaluation & Management of HEENT Disorders

In clinical settings, head, eye, ear, nose, and throat (HEENT) disorders account for the majority of pediatric visits. With the prevalence of these disorders, you must be familiar with their signs and symptoms as well as evidence-based practices for assessment and treatment. Although many pediatric patients present with common HEENT disorders such as ear infections, allergies, and strep throat, some patients present with rare disorders requiring specialist care. In your role, making this distinction between when to treat and when to refer is essential. For this Discussion, examine the following case studies and consider potential diagnoses and management strategies

Case study 2

HPI: Kevin is a 5-year-old Asian American boy with an intermittent 2-day history of nasal congestion and cough in the early morning. His mother reports thick, green nasal discharge. He is afebrile, and appetite and sleep are normal.

PE: A smiling male patient sitting on mom’s lap.
HEENT: Tympanic membranes pearly gray without fluid in a neutral position, no cervical adenopathy, nasal turbinates are red, and clear rhinorrhea and postnasal drip.
CV: RRR, no murmurs or gallop
PULM: clear to auscultation

To prepare:

  • Review “Eye Disorders” and “Ear Disorders” in the Burns et al. text.
  • Review the three case studies focusing on the case that is assigned to you. Analyze the patient information, including the parent’s perspective.
  • Consider a differential diagnosis for the patient in the case study you selected. Think about the most likely diagnosis for the patient.
  • Think about a treatment and management plan for the patient. Be sure to consider appropriate dosages for any recommended pharmacologic and/or non-pharmacologic treatments.
  • Consider strategies for educating parents on the child’s disorder and reducing any concerns/fears presented in the case study.

Post an analysis of your assigned case by responding to the following:

  • What additional questions will you ask?
    • Has the case addressed the LOCATES mnemonic? If not, what else do you need to ask? What additional history will you need? (Think FMH, allergies, meds and so forth, that might be pertinent in arriving to your differential diagnoses).
  • What additional examinations or diagnostic tests, if any will you conduct?
  • What are your differential diagnoses? What historical and physical exam features support your rationales? Provide at least 3 differentials.
  • What is your most likely diagnosis and why?
  • How will you treat this child?
    • Provide medication treatment and symptomatic care.
    • Provide correct medication dosage. Use the knowledge you learned from this week’s and previous weeks’ readings as well as what you have learned from pharmacology to help you with this area.
  • Patient Education, Health Promotion & Anticipatory guidance:
    • Explain strategies for educating parents on their child’s disorder and reducing any concerns/fears presented in the case study.
    • Include any socio-cultural barriers that might impact the treatment and management plans.
  • Health Promotion:
    • What immunizations should this child have had?
      • Based on the child’s age, when is the next well visit?
      • At the next well visit, what are the next set of immunizations?
      • What additional anticipatory guidance should be provided today?