Discussion Board Responses to the cost of quality theories each of these men proposed: Crosby, Juran, and Deming.
Constructively respond to the following 3 posts. Short responses needed.
In his discussion of the cost of quality, Deming thought that companies should focus on the total cost of a product or service when determining which bid to accept. He felt that the lowest bid for the product or service did not necessarily guarantee the best option as there were other costs associated with accepting an inferior product. He also felt that employees should be trained in work analysis methods. He felt that this allowed them to analyze how work was being done and that they were the best placed to suggest improvements for the companies methods. Since employees act as the “boots on the ground” for the company, giving them training that lets them look at the actual methods of work allows for a more productive and efficient company.
Juran’s ideas were based on the Pareto principle. He believed that it was the manager’s responsibility to determine all possible major quality problems. He believed that quality was an overall cost that the company had to face and invest in. He was also the one to first define a customer as anyone who is affected by the final project. This set up the idea that there are both internal and external customers.
In contrast with Juran’s ideas, Crosby championed the idea that quality is free for the company. This meant that the baseline for the company was a quality product and lacking quality was a cost to the company in a loss of business or efficiency. He championed the idea that a product should have zero defects. His quality improvement process was based on 4 things:
1)Quality is conforming to the customers specifications.
2)A quality system should focus on preventing issues.
3)The standard for quality is that there are zero defects in the product.
4)The measurement of quality is based on the cost of not conforming to the specifications of the customer
Crosby proposed a cost of quality approach that is proactive instead of reactive. He mainly emphasized the need for the management to track the quality through close monitoring of employees’ activities. His plan focused on doing things correctly the first time which requires spending more time in the planning stage so that you spend your last time at more focused on the phase completion fixing errors that occurred along the way because errors occurred during the project directly correlates with the cost of the project. Project cost is highly depended on the amount of issue and errors that occurs during the way. Quality is determined by the integration of the consumer specifications to the product. The product should also be devoid of any defects. Consequently, products and services that are in strict conformity with the instructions of the client are considered to be of high quality. Therefore, everyone in the production chain must understand the process of quality to ensure customer satisfaction.
Since being a huge advocate of the Pareto law he proposed a cost of quality approach that focuses on meeting and or exceeding the expectations of the stakeholders. He suggested that the employees contribute a significant number of the quality of work in an organization. To rectify this; he proposes regular motivation of the employees. Every Project Manager’s goal should be to meet or exceed the expectation of the stakeholders because they are who you work for. He asserts that such problems should be listed by the management and specific strategies to resolve the issues outlined and implemented. Failure to rectify will lead to the reduction of the customer base. If you would not mind the additional cost for the project as long as the quality was as requested, then his theory would perfect fit in. His theory puts more importance on quality than cost.
Deming’s emphasized that quality management had to be done at the management level. His method forces the Project Manager to urge stakeholders to make sure they find suitable individuals to put in charge of ordering quality supplies for the project. Individual workers do not have control over the quality because they do not get to choose the materials used to complete the project. He supported that it is appropriate and more productive for managers to work in collaboration and good relations with the employees. It will ensure continued comments and feedbacks that will consequently improve the productivity of the employees and the management. He also insists on the need for the employees to be trained and drilled in work analysis and the statistical process. He denoted that the skills will gradually improve their service to the organization and as a result ensure the quality of service.
The cost of quality (COQ) is the total cost to produce the product or service of the project according to the quality standards and/or the cost to make a product or service that does not meet the quality requirements. There are several cost of quality theories proposed by different people, such as, Philip Crosby, Joseph Juran, and Edwards Deming.
One of the theory was proposed by Philip Crosby. Crosby introduced the zero defects practice, which means do it right the first time. According to him, costs will increase when quality planning is not performed up front, which means to engage in rework (which will affect productivity). Prevention is the important part of his theory. If you stop the defect from occurring initially, then the costs are lower, conformance to requirements is easily met and the cost measurement for quality becomes the cost of nonconformance rather than cost of rework.
The theory by Juran says that product of the project that was produced is what the project set out to produce is met or exceeded. Fitness for use specifically reflects the customers’ or stakeholders’ view of quality. It answers questions like “did the product or service produced meet the quality expectations?” and “did it satisfy a real need?” He believes in grade of quality. Where grade is ” a category for products or services that are of the same type but have differing technical characteristics and quality “describes how well the product or service fulfills the requirements.
The Edwards Deming’s theory suggested that as much as 85% of the cost of the quality is management’s problem and responsibility. Once when quality issue has hit the floor, the worker has little control. Deming also proposed that workers cannot figure out quality on their own and cannot perform at their best until they are shown what acceptable quality is.